The migration/refugee crisis stems from a variety of persistent and new problems being faced by all of humanity. But,before we can understand those contributing factors it is important to differentiate between a migrant and a refugee.
A migrant is a person who makes a conscious choice to leave their country to seek a better life elsewhere. Before they decide to leave their country, migrants can seek information about their new home, study the language and explore employment opportunities. They can plan their travel, take their belongings with them and say goodbye to the important people in their lives. They are free to return home at any time if things don’t work out as they had hoped, if they get homesick or if they wish to visit family members and friends left behind.(refugeecouncil.org)
Refugees are forced to leave their country because they are at risk of,
or have experienced persecution. The concerns of refugees are human
rights and safety, not economic advantage. They leave behind their
homes, most or all of their belongings, family members and friends. So
many are forced to flee with no warning and many have experienced
significant trauma, have been tortured or otherwise ill-treated. The journey
to safety is fraught with hazard and many refugees risk their lives in
search of protection. They cannot return unless the situation that
forced them to leave improves. (refugeecouncil.org)
Refugee protection—both asylum in the country of first refuge and resettlement to a third country—is a humanitarian endeavor, distinct from economic or labor migration. As victims of persecution, under international law refugees are entitled to specific protections, above all from forcible return, and the humanitarian nature of refugee protection is fundamental.
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